사람들은 자신의 생각이 제대로 전달되기를 원하고, 생각이 다른 타인을 잘 설득할 수 있기를 원한다. 이때 사용하는 언어의 기능이 말하기와 글쓰기이다. 특히 우리말이 아닌 영어 글쓰기는 우리 학생•청소년들이 많이 힘들어하는 영역이다.
학생신문에서는 영어 글쓰기와 말하기에 대한 단계적이면서도 구체적인 방법을 연재하여 독자들에게 도움을 주고자 이 섹션을 기획하였다. 이 섹션을 통해 독자들의
영어 말하기와 글쓰기에 자신이 없는 학생•청소년들에게 많은 도움이 되기를 바란다.
또한 이 영어 섹션에는 독자들이 직접 쓴 영어작문 - 기사, 에세이, 독후감, 영화리뷰 등을 기고하여 참여할 수 있다.
[The Art of Writing]
Suppose you could plot out your next writing, assignment on a special computer pad, like this: Subject, Purpose, Form, Audience.
It would be nice if reports and stories could be written by a computer, but it‘s not that simple. You must do your own writing step-by-step - from planning to revising to publishing.
Steps in the Writing Process
Prewriting refers to all the thinking and planning you do before you write your first draft. It includes thinking about your purpose, gathering information, choosing a form (paragraph, letter, report), making a plan, and deciding who your audience will be (friends, adults/teachers, other students).
● Choose a Subject
Pick a subject you know about or can learn about.
If you‘re interested in your subject, your reader will be, too.
● Gather Details
Gather the information you need to make your writing interesting. You can do this by reading books, using the internet, or interviewing other people.
● Make a Plan
You can make lists, create an outline, draw a picture, or do a word web.
You can‘t tell everything in your writing, so decide on one main point to focus on.
2. Writing the First Draft
Writing the first draft means getting all your ideas down on paper. As you know, writers often write more than one draft.
● Write Freely
Write your first draft freely, getting all your ideas on paper.
● Picture Your Audience
Write as if you were talking to the people you are writing to. This will give your writing a personal voice.
● Follow Your Plan
Your writing should have a beginning, a middle, and an ending.
● Wait to Edit
Don‘t stop to check spelling and punctuation now, or you may forget to include all the important information.
Revising means changing and improving your writing. It‘s your opportunity to think about what you’ve written and then add, cut, or change ideas. It‘s also a good time to share your writing with others and get their reactions or ideas.
● Read Your First Draft Aloud
Ask yourself, “Does it make sense? Does it have enough details?”
● Share Your Writing
Ask a classmate, a teacher or your friends to read and react to your writing.
● Make Changes
Add, take out, or move information if you need to make your writing clearer.
Use the revising checklist,
① Did I follow a writing plan?
-Did I use a graphic organizer or an outline?
-Did I have a clear purpose (to explain, to describe, to persuade, to tell a story)?
-Did I keep my audience in mind?
② Do I need to add information?
-Is my topic sentence strong, clearly stating my main idea?
-Did I choose details that will help the reader understand my idea or story?
-Did I answer the important questions about subject?
③ Do I need to cut any information?
-Did I tell so much that my writing lost its focus?
-Did I repeat information?
-Did I include information not related to my subject?
④ Do I need to rewrite some parts?
-Will my beginning get the reader‘s attention?
-Are any of my ideas unclear?
-Did I show, not just tell?
-Will my ending give the reader something to think about?
⑤ Do I need to reorder any parts?
-Did I tell things in an order that makes sense?
-Does my most important point stand out?
4. Editing and Proofreading
Editing and proofreading refers to the final changes you make in your writing. It‘s a careful line-by-line check of your writing to catch and correct any errors.
● Check Your Writing
Check for errors in capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and grammar.
-Did I start each of my sentences with a capital letter?
-Did I capitalize the names of specific people, places, and things?
-Did I end sentences with correct punctuation marks?
-Did I use commas in a series?
-Did I place commas before coordinating conjunctions in compound sentences?
-Did I punctuate dialogue correctly?
-Did I check for spelling errors (including the ones my computer spell checker could have missed)?
④ Sentence Fluency
-Did I write clear and complete sentences?
-Did I write sentences of different lengths?
-Did I begin my sentences in different ways?
⑤ Word Choice and Usage
-Did I use powerful verbs, specific nouns, and colorful modifiers?
-Did I use the correct word (to, too, or two)?
-Did I use subjects and verbs that agree in number?
Publishing is the final step of the writing process.
Publishing is a very important part of the writing process. It lets other people read and listen to your ideas. The following list will help you prepare for that final step.
① Think of your purpose and audience.
When you are getting ready to publish your writing, you must keep your purpose and audience in mind.
② Present a neat finished piece.
Remember, a clear final copy makes your writing attractive and easy to read.
-If you are doing a handwritten piece, use blue or black ink and write on one side of the paper.
-If you are composing on a computer, use fonts that are easy to read. (Don‘t get too fancy!) Also, leave 20mm margins on the top, bottom, and sides of the paper.
-If you are adding art, photos, or other graphics, be sure thy are large enough for the reader to understand and enjoy.
③ Check for style and correctness.
Use the checklist when you edit and proofread your writing. Then, if possible, have at least one trusted person check your work before you hand it in or send it.
④ Follow all publication guidelines.
Be sure to follow your teacher‘s directions for final drafts.
If you are entering a writing contest or sending your writing to a magazine, follow the directions given by the publisher.
You may repeat some steps. For example, even after the first draft, you may need to to more planning.
The final step publishing gives a writer a special reason to work hard and produce something to be very proud of.